Tag Archives: composting

Minimizing pesticides and fertilizers

Pesticides and fertilizers can cause significant harm to public health and the environment. Most pesticides contain potentially toxic chemicals that can cause negative health effects such as cancer and neurological and reproductive disorders. In addition, pesticides can migrate into lakes and streams when it rains. When fertilizers enter a body of water, they can cause oxygen levels to drop, killing aquatic life and posing risks to other species.

It is possible to have healthy, great-looking plants and grass while minimizing the use of harmful pesticides and fertilizers. Minimizing the use of these chemicals means that you don’t need to purchase them as often, thereby saving money. Consider purchasing organic fertilizers (such as compost) or even composting your own food and landscaping wastes for use as a natural soil amendment.  Remember that you can grow Giant Organic Pumpkins from Compost that are awesome and environmentally friendly.

As a reminder, here’s what does and doesn’t work in your compost pile:

What to Include

  • From the Garden
    • Leaves (chopped – to speed their breakdown)
    • Grass (not wet)
    • Plants & Weeds (without ripe seeds)
    • Old potting soil
    • Soft plant stems
  • From the Kitchen
    • Fruit scraps
    • Vegetable trimmings
    • Egg shells (crushed)
    • Tea bags
    • Coffee grounds with filters
    • Shredded paper

DO NOT include…

    • Meat, fish and bones
    • Plastics
    • Metals
    • Fats and oils
    • Dairy products
    • Pet waste
    • Cheese, meat or other sauces

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management is an approach to pest management that helps reduce the use of pesticides. IPM means preventing infestations before they start, and using pesticides only when necessary. There are various IPM approaches that you can adopt to decrease over all reliance on chemical-based pest control. Consider the steps below:

  • Use native plants, trees, and grasses.
  • Fill cracks in walls and pavement.
  • Keep vegetation at least 1 foot away from structures.
  • Clean food-contaminated dishes right away.
  • Clean garbage cans often.
  • Make sure compost bins are properly maintained.

Additional Resources

Giant Organic Pumpkins from Compost

Every year around this time, the great pumpkins come out. I’m not talking about THE Great Pumpkin from the Charlie Brown Halloween Specials, but instead the gargantuan pumpkins that people grow in various vegetable growing competitions.

Pumpkin Contest

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HowToCompost.org has a contest every year for the largest pumpkin grown worldwide without the use of chemical fertilizers. Now my little pumpkin won’t win anything this year (especially as I didn’t actually enter the contest and it probably tops out at 20 pounds), but I think I’ll have to see if I have what it takes for 2008. The rules for growing the pumpkin are pretty simple.

  1. Use only compost to prepare your soil (no chemical fertilizers/supplements allowed).
  2. No force feeding of nutrients through the vines.
  3. The pumpkin must be grown outdoors. (Seeds can be germinated inside and transplanted outside in the early spring.

Composting

Composting is an important way to recycle and can be done at home. It is an easy way to reduce the amount of household garbage by about one third. As well, it produces a valuable soil amendment for use in gardening and landscaping.

Mantis ComposT-Twin

We have been using a Mantis twin barrel composter for about 2 years. It was a gift from both sets of parents for Christmas (it’s fairly expensive for what it is, but convenient and it actually looks good in the side yard). I absolutely love the idea of having our own compost right there and of the reduced footprint we have on our landfills. Until we got the barrel composter we were using the used tire method of composting. This was a good method, but was fairly labor intensive and we piled everything on from the top, so we had some problems with aeration.

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Remember that compost is not just decayed organic matter. Composting is applied microbiology. Literally thousands upon thousands of different species of microorganisms (2 million individuals per gram) in a highly complex ecosystem.

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I think one way of maintaining a sustainable lifestyle is that it must be as easy or easier than the more conventional approach. When collecting our kitchen scraps for compost, we keep a bucket under our sink next to the cutting board. Instead of taking scraps to the regular trash, they go there, when it’s full we take it out to the composter. This is just as easy as if we were tossing it into the trash can for pick-up. Yard scraps work just as well since we pile everything in and if it’s full we put the waste under the barrel and in a couple of days the compost has “cooked” down to where we can stuff more in. It is an easy way to reduce the amount of household garbage by about one third.

Now the website says that you should turn the composter every day – in reality we only turn it when we are dumping in our scraps and that works just as well. And of course the advantage of the twin barrel is that we can just keep filling and filling one chamber while the compost spends several weeks cooking in the other.

Producing quality compost is the most important job on the organic farm. A lot of the problems I see on farms I visit could be solved by making better compost.

— Elliott Coleman, The New Organic Grower

How to Compost

Here’s some great tips for what to compost and how to compost in your back yard. You don’t need to go out and buy a big barrel composter like we’ve got, but you should definitely try it out and see if it’s something you enjoy!

What to Include

  • From the Garden
    • Leaves (chopped – to speed their breakdown)
    • Grass (not wet)
    • Plants & Weeds (without ripe seeds)
    • Old potting soil
    • Soft plant stems
  • From the Kitchen
    • Fruit scraps
    • Vegetable trimmings
    • Egg shells (crushed)
    • Tea bags
    • Coffee grounds with filters
    • Shredded paper

DO NOT include…

    • Meat, fish and bones
    • Plastics
    • Metals
    • Fats and oils
    • Dairy products
    • Pet waste
    • Cheese, meat or other sauces

Clues on Composting

  • The composting process works best when the organic pieces are small. Weeds and trimmings should be shredded.
  • Don’t add thick layers of any one kind of waste. Grass should not be more than 6 cm deep, leaves up to 15 cm deep (cut or chop or dry and crumble them). If you can, let grass dry first or mix it with dry, coarse material such as leaves to prevent compacting.
  • The composter contents should be moist like a wrung-out sponge. If the contents are too dry, it will take overly long to compost; and if too wet, the contents may begin to smell.
  • Turn or mix the compost every couple of weeks or each time you add new material. This keeps the compost well aerated.
  • Composting can be done in the winter. You can add materials to your composter all winter long. The breakdown process slows down or stops when the pile is frozen, but it will start up again in the spring. Thorough turning in the spring will reactivate the pile. Empty the composter in the fall to make plenty of room.

Troubleshooting

Composting is not difficult but sometimes the process requires a little extra attention. Here are some easy solutions to correct certain situations which might occur.

  • If the pile does not decrease in size or generate heat, composting may need a boost. If the pile is dry, add water – mixing thoroughly. If the pile is wet and muddy, spread it in the sun and add dry material. Remember to save “old” compost to mix with incoming material.
  • If the center of the pile is damp and warm, but the rest is cold, the pile may be too small. Try to keep your composter as full as possible. Mix new with old, dry with wet, breaking up mats and clumps.
  • If the pile is damp and sweet smelling but not heating, it may need nitrogen. Add grass clippings, table scraps or a sprinkling of organic fertilizer from the garden centre.
  • If the compost pile develops a foul odour, it may not be getting enough air. Loosen up the pile, break up clumps, unblock vents and perhaps add some wood chips to help the pile “breathe”. Turning the pile always helps aeration.
  • Compost in a container with a cover to prevent animals from getting into the composting materials. A wire mesh around the base can help to prevent pests from digging under the pile. Dig in or cover food waste immediately.

Is It Finished Yet?

The composting process can take from 2 months to 2 years, depending on the materials used and the effort involved. To accelerate the process, the pile must be a balance between wet and dry material, turn it frequently and make sure the waste is shredded or in small pieces.
Compost is ready to be used when it is dark in color, crumbly and has an “earthy” smell.

Put Compost to Good Use

Composting can benefit your soil and plants in many ways. It increases the soil’s organic matter content and its moisture-holding capacity. Compost improves soil porosity and helps to control soil erosion. It also enhances plant and flower growth and helps plants develop a sound root structure.
Use it on your lawn, in your garden, around trees or combine it with potting soil for your plants.