A good unit test should be:

  • Easy to write. Developers typically write lots of unit tests to cover different cases and aspects of the application’s behavior, so it should be easy to code all of those test routines without enormous effort.
  • Readable. The intent of a unit test should be clear. A good unit test tells a story about some behavioral aspect of our application, so it should be easy to understand which scenario is being tested and — if the test fails — easy to detect how to address the problem. With a good unit test, we can fix a bug without actually debugging the code!
  • Reliable. Unit tests should fail only if there’s a bug in the system under test. That seems pretty obvious, but programmers often run into an issue when their tests fail even when no bugs were introduced. For example, tests may pass when running one-by-one, but fail when running the whole test suite, or pass on our development machine and fail on the continuous integration server. These situations are indicative of a design flaw. Good unit tests should be reproducible and independent from external factors such as the environment or running order.
  • Fast. Developers write unit tests so they can repeatedly run them and check that no bugs have been introduced. If unit tests are slow, developers are more likely to skip running them on their own machines. One slow test won’t make a significant difference; add one thousand more and we’re surely stuck waiting for a while. Slow unit tests may also indicate that either the system under test, or the test itself, interacts with external systems, making it environment-dependent.
  • Truly unit, not integration. As we already discussed, unit and integration tests have different purposes. Both the unit test and the system under test should not access the network resources, databases, file system, etc., to eliminate the influence of external factors.

Many DevTest teams require developers to include unit tests for the functionality they add or change during a commit, but are then often surprised to find bugs that are only exhibited in the wild. This is because unit tests only exercise small portions of the system in isolation; they are necessary, but not at all representative of how an entire system will function.  However, they are also the foundation of the testing pyramid.  We don’t want to “throw garbage over the wall” to our QA or Ops group to find what might be relatively simple bugs that bring down our system or cause it to behave is ways we don’t want.

Things to avoid when making testable code

As developers, when we write our code, we should keep in mind that unit tests are an integral part of our jobs, and as such, avoid some common pitfalls that make our code hard to test, such as:

Static Properties and Fields

Static properties and fields or, simply put, global state, can complicate code comprehension and testability, by hiding the information required for a method to get its job done, by introducing non-determinism, or by promoting extensive usage of side effects. Functions that read or modify mutable global state are inherently impure.


Essentially, the Singleton pattern is just another form of the global state. Singletons promote obscure APIs that lie about real dependencies and introduce unnecessarily tight coupling between components. They also violate the Single Responsibility Principle because, in addition to their primary duties, they control their own initialization and lifecycle.

The new Operator

Newing up an instance of an object in order to get some job done introduces the same problem as the Singleton anti-pattern: unclear APIs with hidden dependencies, tight coupling, and poor testability.

Static Methods

Static methods are another potential source of non-deterministic or side-effecting behavior. They can easily introduce tight coupling and make our code untestable.


Obviously, writing testable code requires some discipline, concentration, and extra effort. But software development is a complex mental activity anyway, and we should always be careful, and avoid recklessly throwing together new code from the top of our heads.